Figure 1. This suite of untreated emeralds is from a new find in Ethiopia. The largest faceted stone weighs 10.64 ct. The largest rough crystal weighs 315.61 ct. Photo by Robison McMurtry, courtesy of Michael Nemeth Inc.
In recent years Ethiopia has gained considerable attention in the gem trade for large amounts of high-quality opal from an area near Wegel Tena (B. Rondeau et al., 2010, “Play-of-color opal from Wegel Tena, Wollo Province, Ethiopia,” Summer 2010 G&G, pp. 90–105). A new deposit of high-quality emeralds (see figure 1) has been found in the rural villages of Kenticha and Dermi, in the Seba Boru district (figure 2). In November 2016, author MN and business partner Daniel Kifle visited the local trading town of Shakiso, where Ethiopian gem merchants gather to legally buy and sell emeralds that are mined several kilometers away. The mining area is divided into a few “associations.” Each consists of a manager and several members who control the actual mining and distribution of the emerald rough. After the rough has been sorted, it makes its way first through Shakiso before being sold to dealers in the capital city of Addis Ababa, about a 12-hour drive from the mining area.
Figure 2. The new deposit of Ethiopian emerald is located near the town of Shakiso.
According to Mr. Tewoldebran Abay, the mineral marketing director of the Ministry of Mines, Petroleum and Natural Gas, more than 100 kilograms of emerald rough have been produced to date. Mining still is done the traditional way using hand tools, without heavy machinery. Even though most of the material is commercial grade, lighter in saturation and moderately to heavily included, fine gem-grade crystals of exceptional size, color, and clarity are obtainable and can produce stones that do not require clarity enhancement (figures 1 and 3).
Figure 3. Author Michael Nemeth sorts through parcels of gem-quality rough emeralds from the open market in Shakiso. Rough crystals can weigh more than 100 ct, with reports of some weighing almost 500 ct. Photo by Michael Nemeth.
Due to heightened tensions and fear of price instability, most of the mine area was temporarily closed by a joint effort of the mining associations and the local government from early November through December 2016. It has been reopened, but now all dealers, including Ethiopian dealers, need written permission to enter the Shakiso area for buying. The law is vigorously enforced, and penalties are severe.
These emeralds are very similar in appearance to other schist-hosted emeralds—in particular, those from Brazil and Zambia. Among the faceted and rough samples examined, blocky multiphase inclusions and irregular biotite crystals were the most common microscopic features observed (figure 4). Otherwise, the gemological properties were very consistent with emeralds, including an average specific gravity of 2.73 and a refractive index of 1.581–1.589. These emeralds were generally inert to long- and short-wave UV exposure due to their moderately high iron content, which is typical of schist-hosted emeralds. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy results were consistent with emeralds colored by chromium and vanadium. The FTIR spectrum was consistent with beryl, as expected, but did not reveal any other diagnostic features.
Figure 4. Microscopic observation of the Ethiopian emeralds revealed biotite crystals (left) and blocky multiphase inclusions (right). Field of view 2.04 mm (left) and 1.79 mm (right). Photomicrographs by Nathan Renfro.
Quantitative trace element chemical analysis was performed with a Thermo Scientific iCap Q inductively coupled plasma–quadrupole mass spectrometer combined with a New Wave Research UP-213 laser ablation unit. The analyses were compared to data from other known sources using GIA reference samples, including Zambian and Brazilian schist-hosted emeralds. Based on the results, it was possible to separate the new find of Ethiopian emeralds from other sources by comparing trace alkali metals and some transition metals (figure 5).
Figure 5. LA-ICP-MS quantitative trace element composition analysis of alkali and some transition metals (measured in ppmw) proved useful in separating this new deposit of Ethiopian emeralds from Brazilian and Zambian schist-hosted deposits.
This exciting discovery in Ethiopia will provide a new source of large, high-quality emeralds for the gem and jewelry trade. Only time will tell how significant this deposit will be.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Nathan Renfro is analytical manager of the gem identification department and microscopist of the inclusion research department, at GIA in Carlsbad, California. Michael Nemeth is owner of Michael Nemeth Inc. in San Diego, California. Ziyin Sun is a staff gemologist at GIA in Carlsbad.
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J. C. (Hanco) Zwaan, Antonín V. Seifert, Stanislav Vrána, Brendan M. Laurs, Björn Anckar,William B. (Skip) Simmons, Alexander U. Falster, Wim J. Lustenhouwer, Sam Muhlmeister, John I. Koivula and Héja Garcia-GuillerminetJun 1, 2005
In my short Blog,
Ethiopian in Diaspora, I am trying to focus in the activities of my land of
origin Ethiopia and my living country Germany Vis a vis all Ethiopian in the
Ethiopia has a lot
to learn from Germany. From Judiciary system to the Federal level, from the
social Aspects to the Educational curriculums. Etc. as always. This is my
shaped how processes of migration, exile, and the formation of diaspora and
other transnational networks operate. By decreasing communication and travel
costs, globalization has made it easier for migrants to form networks that link
geographically distant populations to social, political, and economic
developments in the homeland. Those forced across borders by conflict or
repression commonly have a specific set of traumatic memories and hence create
specific types of “conflict generated Diasporas” that retain highly
salient symbolic ties to the homeland. These Diasporas are often mobilized and
engaged in homeland politics in ways that shape processes of conflict and
Diasporas – with their
origins in violent displacement and their identities linked to symbolically
important territory – often play critical roles with regard to political
struggles in the homeland.
.... As recent research
has noted that Diaspora groups created by conflict and sustained by traumatic
memories tend to compromise less and therefore reinforce and exacerbate
conflicts’ protractedness. In some cases, such as the Tamil, Armenian, or segments
of the Ethiopian Diasporas.
Diasporas therefore are often key actors in homeland conflicts and may contribute
either to increased polarization or new opportunities for peace. “Terrence Lyons
In the Ethiopian case let’s have a look to the
"New Opportunities for peace" by the Diaspora, let me ignore for the
time being the contribution of most Diasporas to the conflicts in Ethiopia...
So how many of the
Diasporas are interested in bringing peace to their Homeland?
What are basic steps to
bring peace in the first place?
According to my
1.0 Accepting the Rule
of law and Respecting the Constitution in the Home Country
2.0 Exposing the Miss
managements and Corruption by strengthen Civil Servants and non-Political Human
Right Activists in the country. Hence promoting Good Governance.
3.0 Supporting the
Developmental Activities at home and Opposing Ethiopian Strategic Contenders.
Instead of being
an opportunity for peace, several studies showed that many organized Diasporas are
interested to their own policy and regime change in their Home land.
The May 2005
elections and the recent mass demonstration in Ethiopia could be taken as the
influence played by the Diasporas, in exacerbating the actual problem of the
People to instability and bloodshed. The writer Terrence Lyons, continued
to show the role of the Diaspora as follows:
"Globalization and increased human mobility has
made politics increasingly transnational with non-resident groups such as
Diasporas playing increasingly important roles. The May 2005 elections
demonstrate the influence of the Ethiopia diaspora, both in the decision by
opposition parties to participate and then in the debates on whether the
opposition should take up their seats in Parliament."
so the case paper showed
us that the opposition in Ethiopia led by the so called "Kinigit"
were in consultation with those Diasporas even to the extent that they had
accepted not to take up the seats they had won during the
election in 2005 in Addis Ababa. The illegal Money flow to their accounts and
hence to the Youth in the streets of Addis is not to be mentioned. They were
not intended to share power and bring Stability and Democracy to the people of
Ethiopia but to change the regime at any cost. "Regime Change"
....after five years
EPRDF had corrected his shortcomings and were elected by the majority and The
Opposition are still screaming for not sharing power in the Country.
To me, they were not
interested in the first place, except some opposition at home, of course, to
share power but to dominate the power and the people like the old Regime.
Let’s read the
following paragraph, page 6, from the Diaspora and Conflict Societies; by J.M.
can effectively work to advance, protect, and embody these rights for
themselves and potentially the homeland (Brinkerhoff 2009). Drawing from the
cases of Lebanon and Kosovo, Koinova (forthcoming) suggests that the rhetoric
of liberal values may also reflect an instrumentalist agenda on the part of
diaspora organizations seeking to reinforce their sovereignty aims vis-à-vis
the homeland (see also Shain 1999). When a diasporans’ home country is
embroiled in conflict, for some, national and homeland identity can become
problematic, increasing stress and a sense of marginalization in the country of
residence (see, for example, Esman 1986; Cohen 1996). These challenges are, of
course, compounded when the diaspora is a result of forced migration. Efforts
to proactively promote and recreate particular homeland identities may be more
acute in the absence of a physical homeland (see Koslowski 2005); ³”
To summarize in short,
forced migration will enable one to lose his or her identity so in order to be
accepted as a refugee, they have to be active in politics to give a reason to
their stay in the host country. The innocent Ethiopians will face a big
challenge and with or without knowing they will be a prey to the old Diasporas
having Nationality or already granted asylum.
As a result of
either forced migration or by other means, new comer to the US or EU have no
other chance than serving the poised Diasporas, hoping to get a paper for
Asylum at any price.
(Many Ethiopian Women
were forced to sleep with the poised Diasporas for that matter that is why I
said at any cost)
Whether to stage
Demonstrations or contributing Money, Mobilizing even their Families at home
against their Government.
I know very well
what i am writing about but that is True of the opposition Diasporas you watch
them on the screen on ESAT) shameless Dia-SPORA!
Even the case
study you referred above have supported what I have personally observed.
Any Comment: -
² Institute for Conflict
Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA
Brinkerhoff, George washington University, Washington, USA.
Äthiopische Demokratie , ihre Herausforderungen und Leistungen.
Tewolde-B (Leipzig -Deutschland) Jan.2017)
haben keine andere Wahl als Demokratie in Äthiopien, auch wenn wir es nicht
mögen" Meles Zenawi.
Demokratie in Äthiopien, wenn wir im Vergleich zu seiner Vergangenheit
Geschichte, Herausforderungen und Dritte Welt Ländern, im Allgemeinen ist es
eine blühende und wachsende Demokratie. Das ist meine Ansicht!
warum und wie kann ich es wagen, das zu sagen?
kann seine eigenen Ansichten haben, aber das ist MEINE und es gibt sicher keine
100% Demokratie in der Welt. Selbst in Ländern, die als Mutter der Demokratie
Sie mich Sie zurück zu den 60er Jahren nehmen.