Dienstag, 28. Februar 2017

Ethiopian Emerald

the Ethiopian Emerald is certified by The GIA


A New Discovery of Emeralds from Ethiopia

Nathan Renfro, Michael Nemeth, and Ziyin Sun
January 30, 2017
Suite of untreated Ethiopian emeralds
Figure 1. This suite of untreated emeralds is from a new find in Ethiopia. The largest faceted stone weighs 10.64 ct. The largest rough crystal weighs 315.61 ct. Photo by Robison McMurtry, courtesy of Michael Nemeth Inc. 
In recent years Ethiopia has gained considerable attention in the gem trade for large amounts of high-quality opal from an area near Wegel Tena (B. Rondeau et al., 2010, “Play-of-color opal from Wegel Tena, Wollo Province, Ethiopia,” Summer 2010 G&G, pp. 90–105). A new deposit of high-quality emeralds (see figure 1) has been found in the rural villages of Kenticha and Dermi, in the Seba Boru district (figure 2). In November 2016, author MN and business partner Daniel Kifle visited the local trading town of Shakiso, where Ethiopian gem merchants gather to legally buy and sell emeralds that are mined several kilometers away. The mining area is divided into a few “associations.” Each consists of a manager and several members who control the actual mining and distribution of the emerald rough. After the rough has been sorted, it makes its way first through Shakiso before being sold to dealers in the capital city of Addis Ababa, about a 12-hour drive from the mining area.
Map of Ethiopian emerald deposit
Figure 2. The new deposit of Ethiopian emerald is located near the town of Shakiso.
According to Mr. Tewoldebran Abay, the mineral marketing director of the Ministry of Mines, Petroleum and Natural Gas, more than 100 kilograms of emerald rough have been produced to date. Mining still is done the traditional way using hand tools, without heavy machinery. Even though most of the material is commercial grade, lighter in saturation and moderately to heavily included, fine gem-grade crystals of exceptional size, color, and clarity are obtainable and can produce stones that do not require clarity enhancement (figures 1 and 3).
Michael Nemeth sorts Ethiopian emerald
Figure 3. Author Michael Nemeth sorts through parcels of gem-quality rough emeralds from the open market in Shakiso. Rough crystals can weigh more than 100 ct, with reports of some weighing almost 500 ct. Photo by Michael Nemeth. 
Due to heightened tensions and fear of price instability, most of the mine area was temporarily closed by a joint effort of the mining associations and the local government from early November through December 2016. It has been reopened, but now all dealers, including Ethiopian dealers, need written permission to enter the Shakiso area for buying. The law is vigorously enforced, and penalties are severe.

These emeralds are very similar in appearance to other schist-hosted emeralds—in particular, those from Brazil and Zambia. Among the faceted and rough samples examined, blocky multiphase inclusions and irregular biotite crystals were the most common microscopic features observed (figure 4). Otherwise, the gemological properties were very consistent with emeralds, including an average specific gravity of 2.73 and a refractive index of 1.581–1.589. These emeralds were generally inert to long- and short-wave UV exposure due to their moderately high iron content, which is typical of schist-hosted emeralds. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy results were consistent with emeralds colored by chromium and vanadium. The FTIR spectrum was consistent with beryl, as expected, but did not reveal any other diagnostic features.
Microscopic features observed in Ethiopian emerald
Figure 4. Microscopic observation of the Ethiopian emeralds revealed biotite crystals (left) and blocky multiphase inclusions (right). Field of view 2.04 mm (left) and 1.79 mm (right). Photomicrographs by Nathan Renfro.
Quantitative trace element chemical analysis was performed with a Thermo Scientific iCap Q inductively coupled plasma–quadrupole mass spectrometer combined with a New Wave Research UP-213 laser ablation unit. The analyses were compared to data from other known sources using GIA reference samples, including Zambian and Brazilian schist-hosted emeralds. Based on the results, it was possible to separate the new find of Ethiopian emeralds from other sources by comparing trace alkali metals and some transition metals (figure 5).
LA-ICP-MS quantitative analysis of trace element composition
Figure 5. LA-ICP-MS quantitative trace element composition analysis of alkali and some transition metals (measured in ppmw) proved useful in separating this new deposit of Ethiopian emeralds from Brazilian and Zambian schist-hosted deposits.
This exciting discovery in Ethiopia will provide a new source of large, high-quality emeralds for the gem and jewelry trade. Only time will tell how significant this deposit will be.


Get all the content featured in the most recent issue of Gems & Gemology, as well as access to every issue of the quarterly journal since 1934.



Why We Love
Explore emerald history, research, quality factors, and more in the GIA Gem Encyclopedia.



Search GIA's library catalog of 57,000 books, 1,800 videos, 700 periodicals, and the renowned Cartier Rare Book Repository and Archive.


Resources For Retailers
Find a Retailer
Shop the Campus Store
Shop the Campus Store
Quality Assurance Benchmarks
G&G Winter 2016 Edition

Conflict.generated Diasporas

  Ethiopian in Diaspora

In my short Blog, Ethiopian in Diaspora, I am trying to focus in the activities of my land of origin Ethiopia and my living country Germany Vis a vis all Ethiopian in the Diaspora.

 Ethiopia has a lot to learn from Germany. From Judiciary system to the Federal level, from the social Aspects to the Educational curriculums. Etc. as always. This is my view.

"Globalization has shaped how processes of migration, exile, and the formation of diaspora and other transnational networks operate. By decreasing communication and travel costs, globalization has made it easier for migrants to form networks that link geographically distant populations to social, political, and economic developments in the homeland. Those forced across borders by conflict or repression commonly have a specific set of traumatic memories and hence create specific types of “conflict generated Diasporas” that retain highly salient symbolic ties to the homeland. These Diasporas are often mobilized and engaged in homeland politics in ways that shape processes of conflict and democratization. 

Conflict-generated Diasporas – with their origins in violent displacement and their identities linked to symbolically important territory – often play critical roles with regard to political struggles in the homeland. 

.... As recent research has noted that Diaspora groups created by conflict and sustained by traumatic memories tend to compromise less and therefore reinforce and exacerbate conflicts’ protractedness. In some cases, such as the Tamil, Armenian, or segments of the Ethiopian Diasporas.

Conflict-generated Diasporas therefore are often key actors in homeland conflicts and may contribute either to increased polarization or new opportunities for peace. “Terrence Lyons

 In the Ethiopian case let’s have a look to the "New Opportunities for peace" by the Diaspora, let me ignore for the time being the contribution of most Diasporas to the conflicts in Ethiopia...

So how many of the Diasporas are interested in bringing peace to their Homeland?

What are basic steps to bring peace in the first place? 

According to my understanding:

1.0 Accepting the Rule of law and Respecting the Constitution in the Home Country

2.0 Exposing the Miss managements and Corruption by strengthen Civil Servants and non-Political Human Right Activists in the country. Hence promoting Good Governance.

3.0 Supporting the Developmental Activities at home and Opposing Ethiopian Strategic Contenders.

  Instead of being an opportunity for peace, several studies showed that many organized Diasporas are interested to their own policy and regime change in their Home land.  

 The May 2005 elections and the recent mass demonstration in Ethiopia could be taken as the influence played by the Diasporas, in exacerbating the actual problem of the People to instability and bloodshed.  The writer Terrence Lyons, continued to show the role of the Diaspora as follows:

"Globalization and increased human mobility has made politics increasingly transnational with non-resident groups such as Diasporas playing increasingly important roles. The May 2005 elections demonstrate the influence of the Ethiopia diaspora, both in the decision by opposition parties to participate and then in the debates on whether the opposition should take up their seats in Parliament."

so the case paper showed us that the opposition in Ethiopia led by the so called "Kinigit" were in consultation with those Diasporas even to the extent that they had accepted not to take up the seats they had won during the election in 2005 in Addis Ababa. The illegal Money flow to their accounts and hence to the Youth in the streets of Addis is not to be mentioned. They were not intended to share power and bring Stability and Democracy to the people of Ethiopia but to change the regime at any cost. "Regime Change"
....after five years EPRDF had corrected his shortcomings and were elected by the majority and The Opposition are still screaming for not sharing power in the Country.

To me, they were not interested in the first place, except some opposition at home, of course, to share power but to dominate the power and the people like the old Regime. 

 Let’s read the following paragraph, page 6, from the Diaspora and Conflict Societies; by J.M. Brinkerhoff.

"Those Diasporas can effectively work to advance, protect, and embody these rights for themselves and potentially the homeland (Brinkerhoff 2009). Drawing from the cases of Lebanon and Kosovo, Koinova (forthcoming) suggests that the rhetoric of liberal values may also reflect an instrumentalist agenda on the part of diaspora organizations seeking to reinforce their sovereignty aims vis-à-vis the homeland (see also Shain 1999). When a diasporans’ home country is embroiled in conflict, for some, national and homeland identity can become problematic, increasing stress and a sense of marginalization in the country of residence (see, for example, Esman 1986; Cohen 1996). These challenges are, of course, compounded when the diaspora is a result of forced migration. Efforts to proactively promote and recreate particular homeland identities may be more acute in the absence of a physical homeland (see Koslowski 2005); ³” 

To summarize in short, forced migration will enable one to lose his or her identity so in order to be accepted as a refugee, they have to be active in politics to give a reason to their stay in the host country. The innocent Ethiopians will face a big challenge and with or without knowing they will be a prey to the old Diasporas having Nationality or already granted asylum.  

 As a result of either forced migration or by other means, new comer to the US or EU have no other chance than serving the poised Diasporas, hoping to get a paper for Asylum at any price.
(Many Ethiopian Women were forced to sleep with the poised Diasporas for that matter that is why I said at any cost)
Whether to stage Demonstrations or contributing Money, Mobilizing even their Families at home against their Government.
 I know very well what i am writing about but that is True of the opposition Diasporas you watch them on the screen on ESAT) shameless Dia-SPORA!
 Even the case study you referred above have supported what I have personally observed.
Any Comment: - nathnahom@gmail.com

² Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA
³jennifer M. Brinkerhoff, George washington University, Washington, USA.

Mittwoch, 15. Februar 2017

Die Äthiopische Demokratie

Die Äthiopische Demokratie , ihre Herausforderungen und Leistungen.
(Von Tewolde-B (Leipzig -Deutschland) Jan.2017)  
"Wir haben keine andere Wahl als Demokratie in Äthiopien, auch wenn wir es nicht mögen" Meles Zenawi.
Die äthiopische Demokratie: -
Die Demokratie in Äthiopien, wenn wir im Vergleich zu seiner Vergangenheit Geschichte, Herausforderungen und Dritte Welt Ländern, im Allgemeinen ist es eine blühende und wachsende Demokratie. Das ist meine Ansicht!
  Aber warum und wie kann ich es wagen, das zu sagen?
Jeder kann seine eigenen Ansichten haben, aber das ist MEINE und es gibt sicher keine 100% Demokratie in der Welt. Selbst in Ländern, die als Mutter der Demokratie bekannt sind.

Lassen Sie mich Sie zurück zu den 60er Jahren nehmen.